International cooperation of Kazhydromet is developing in the following main areas:
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
- WMO Regional Associations II and VI
- Inter-state Council of Hydrometeorology (ICH)
- Bilateral and Multilateral agreements on Hydrometeorology
- International projects
- Participation in an international course, trainings and study seminars
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) – WMO is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) with 191 Member States and Territories. It is the UN system's authoritative voice on the state and behavior of the Earth's atmosphere, its interaction with the land and oceans, the weather and climate it produces and the resulting distribution of water resources.
WMO composites 188 member-countries (as at January 24, 2007). The International Meteorological Organization (IMO) was founded in 1873 during the Vienna Congress to facilitate the exchange of weather information across national borders. It remained in operation until 1950, when IMO formally became the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
As weather, climate and the water cycle know no national boundaries, international cooperation at a global scale is essential for the development of meteorology and operational hydrology as well as to reap the benefits from their application. WMO provides the framework for such international cooperation.
The mission of WMO is to:
- Facilitate worldwide cooperation in the establishment of networks of stations for the making of meteorological observations as well as hydrological and other geophysical observations related to meteorology, and to promote the establishment and maintenance of centers charged with the provision of meteorological and related services.
- Promote the establishment and maintenance of systems for the rapid exchange of meteorological and related information.
- Promote standardization of meteorological and related observations and to ensure the uniform publication of observations and statistics.
- Further the application of meteorology to aviation, shipping, water problems, agriculture and other human activities.
- Promote activities in operational hydrology and to further close cooperation between Meteorological and Hydrological Services.
- Encourage research and training in meteorology and, as appropriate, in related fields, and to assist in coordinating the international aspects of such research and training.
WMO carries out its work through 10 major scientific and technical programs. These are designed to assist all Members to provide, and benefit from, a wide range of meteorological and hydrological services and to address present and emerging problems. The programs are based on the concept and experience that mutual benefits are gained from cooperative use of the pool of knowledge that has been, and is still being, created by worldwide sharing of meteorological, hydrological and related information among Members. The programs of WMO make possible the provision of meteorological and related services in all countries at costs far below those that would be incurred if each Member acted alone.
The World Weather Watch (WWW) Programme is a core Programme of WMO. It combines observing systems, information systems and telecommunication facilities, and data-processing and forecasting centers— operated by Members—to provide the backbone for efficient meteorological and hydrological services, worldwide. It also includes the Tropical Cyclone Programme, the Antarctic Activities Programme, and an Emergency Response Activities Programme for environmental emergencies associated with nuclear accidents, volcanic eruptions, and other similar environmental hazards. Additionally, the WWW Programme includes the Instruments and Methods of Observation Programme to ensure the quality of the observations which are vital for weather forecasting and climate monitoring.
The World Climate Programme (WCP) promotes the improvement of the understanding of climate processes through internationally coordinated research and the monitoring of climate variations or changes. It also promotes the application of climate information and services to assist in economic and social planning and development. The research component of the Programme is the joint responsibility of WMO, the International Council for Science and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO. The Climate Impact Assessment and Response Strategies component is coordinated by the United Nations Environment Programme.
WMO Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme (AREP) Stimulate and coordinate global activities in the field of atmospheric research and related environmental issues.
The Applications of Meteorology Programme (AMP) consists of four essential Programme areas: public weather services, agricultural meteorology, aeronautical meteorology and marine meteorology and oceanography. The Programme promotes the development of infrastructure, expertise and services which are required in those areas for the benefit of Member countries.
The Hydrology and Water Resources Programme (HWRP) is concerned with assessment of the quantity and quality of water resources in order to meet the needs of society, to permit mitigation of water-related hazards, and to maintain or enhance the condition of the global environment. It includes standardization of all aspects of hydrological observations and the organized transfer of hydrological techniques and methods. The Programme is closely coordinated with UNESCO’s International Hydrological Programme.
The Education and Training Programme (ETRP) has as its goal to assist Member countries in obtaining adequately qualified staff for their National Meteorological and Hydrological Services so as to enable them to discharge efficiently and cost-effectively their current responsibilities and meet the challenges of new technologies. The main strategy for achieving this goal is collaboration with international partners, universities, relevant training institutions, schools and the media. The Programme works closely with all WMO scientific and technical Programme in organizing specialized training in weather-, climate- and water-related fields.
The Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) coordinates the resource-mobilization activities leading to the development of NMHSs worldwide and comprises the mainstream of organized transfer of meteorological and hydrological knowledge and proven methodology among the Members of the Organization. Particular emphasis is laid upon the provision of a wide range of weather, climate and water services; on strengthening and operating key World Weather Watch infrastructures; on supporting the WMO Education and Training Programme; and on implementing the WMO Programme for the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). The TCO Programme is funded mainly by WMO’s own Voluntary Cooperation Programme, UNDP, trust funds and the WMO regular budget.
The Regional Programme (RP) cuts across the other major WMO Programme of relevance to the respective Regions and addresses meteorological, hydrological and related environmental issues which are unique to, and of common concern to, a Region or group of Regions. It provides a framework for the formulation of most of the global WMO Programme and serves as a mechanism for their implementation at the national, sub regional and regional levels. It promotes the development and implementation of regional/sub regional initiatives in meteorology and hydrology among Members and cooperation with regional economic communities.
The WMO Space Programme (SAT) is based on three cornerstones: a space component that responds to the needs of WMO and WMO-supported programs; a data-dissemination and access system that is a core component of the WMO Information System; and a capacity-building component to increase the effectiveness of satellite data and products through their improved utilization. SAT provides satellite observations, derived products and services relating to climate, the ocean, agriculture, aviation, atmospheric chemistry and the water cycle, as well as natural hazards, for all WMO programs.
The Disaster Risk Reduction Programme (DRR) is a cross-cutting Programme that underpins WMO’s mission to protect lives, livelihoods and property. It ensures the integration of relevant activities being carried out under the various WMO Programme in the area of disaster risk reduction and implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015. It provides for the effective coordination of WMO activities with the related activities of international, regional and national organizations, including development, humanitarian and civil protection organizations, particularly in support of risk assessment, early warning systems and capacity building. The Programme also provides scientific and technical support to WMOs actions in response to disaster situations.
By its territorial affiliation Republic of Kazakhstan enters in Regional Association II (Asia) and Regional Association (Europe).
Activity of NHMS of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the frameworks of Regional Associations includes the followings:
- Maintenance and further development of existing observation, telecommunications and data processing systems.
- Free and unrestricted international exchange of data and products between National Meteorological, Hydrological and other Services.
- Prevention and mitigation of natural disasters through the implementation of improved detection, prediction and warning systems.
- Development of effective public weather services to promote better understanding and recognition of the value of meteorological and climate information.
- Capacity building of National Meteorological Services.
- Planning and rational use of water resources.
- Climate monitoring, scientific research and climate forecasts.
Republic of Kazakhstan also is a member of Intergovernmental Council of Hydrometeorology of Commonwealth Independent States (ICH CIS). ICH CIS work groups, in which Kazhydromet specialists are involved, covers all sectors of NHMS activities.
- Exchange of hydrometeorological information;
- Coordination of scientific research;
- Meteorological support for civil aviation;
- Instruments and methods of measurement;
- Meteorological telecommunication and machine processing of hydrometeorological materials;
- Global and regional climate and ozone issues;
- Satellite Information;
- Hydrometeorological support and forecasts;
- Monitoring of environmental pollution;
- Active impacts on hydrometeorological processes;
- Ensuring the activities of the terrestrial observant network;
- Agricultural meteorology;
- Marine Meteorology.
Signed a bilateral and multilateral Cooperation Agreements in the field of Hydrometeorology with a number of countries.
• Agreement with the Federal Service of Russia for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet).
• Agreement with the Agency for Hydrometeorology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Nature Protection of the Republic of Tajikistan.
• Agreement with the Center for Hydrometeorological Service under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
• Agreement with the National Committee for Hydrometeorology under the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan.
• Agreement with the Main Directorate for Hydrometeorology under the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Kyrgyz Republic.
• Agreement between the Governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan on cooperation in the field of hydrometeorology.
• Agreement with the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute "SSMU" of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic.
In accordance with the signed documents, Kazhydromet carries out work on fulfillment of obligations under these Agreements, including the exchange of Hydrometeorological observations and processed information, joint scientific and technical programs, informing in the case of a threat of emergency Hydrometeorological situation, joint training of personnel.
In accordance with the Agreement on scientific and technical cooperation in the field of meteorology between the Main Administration for Hydrometeorology of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Meteorological Administration of China signed on September 11, 1995 during the visit of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Mr. Nursultan Nazarbayev to China, the following areas of cooperation were determined:
- Exchange of meteorological information;
- Short-term and medium-term weather forecasts and long-term forecasts for the month, season and year;
- Cooperation in the field of agro meteorology;
- Study of the regional climate and its changes;
- Exchange of publications on the results of scientific research;
- Investigation of the dynamics of dust storms;
- Reception, processing and use of satellite information;
- Technical cooperation.
Following forms of cooperation were agreed:
- Mutual visiting of specialists;
- Conducting joint research;
- Mastering and developing new systems, conducting consultations, lectures, and other forms of scientific exchange;
- Exchange of scientific publications and meteorological data;
- Mutual delivery of instruments and equipment.
Kazhydromet takes an active part in the development and implementation of international projects in the field of hydrology, meteorology, environmental protection, climate change and in other areas related to the activities of Kazhydromet.
The initiatives of the Hydrometeorological and meteorological services of the states of THE CASPIAN SEA region for cooperation are being developed.
In accordance with the existing tasks and normative documents, the following tasks are assigned in the Caspian Sea region at Kazhydromet:
- Hydrometeorological support of the population;
- Economic and nature protection activities in the Caspian Sea region;
- Conducting scientific research on forecasting changes of the Caspian Sea level;
- Development and implementation of priority measures for the restoration and development of the network of Hydrometeorological monitoring and monitoring of Caspian pollution.
The tasks of informational support of the population, economic and nature protection activity in the Caspian region are fulfilled by Kazhydromet within the framework of the existing project on conducting Hydrometeorological monitoring. The activity of the Kazhydromet system in the field of monitoring the state and pollution of the natural environment in the Caspian Sea region is carried out in the following main directions:
- Collection, processing, storage and dissemination of operational Hydrometeorological information for the Caspian Sea region.
- Monitoring of pollution of the Caspian Sea.
- Studies of the causes of sharp changes in the level of the Caspian Sea and the development of a forecast of these changes of different lead times.
In the specific conditions of the Caspian Sea, the solution of the above tasks is impossible by the forces of a single Caspian country, or even several Caspian countries. The solution of the problems of information provision of various consumers with data and information on the state of the natural environment of the Caspian is possible only through joint efforts of all five littoral countries.
Heads of Hydrometeorological/meteorological services of all the Caspian countries, expressing concern about the emergency situation in the region related to the destruction of the observational Hydrometeorological network and the network for monitoring the pollution of the environment, understanding this responsibility for solving these problems, in September 1994, with the active support of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) established the Coordinating Committee for Hydrometeorology and Monitoring of Caspian Sea Pollution (CASPCOM).
In order to fix the extremely unfavorable situation in the aforementioned region, the Coordination Committee decided to develop and implement the Comprehensive Program on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring in the Caspian Sea Region (CASPAS). Under the guidance of the CASPCOM, experts from the Caspian littoral states, with the assistance of WMO, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) developed the draft of this Program, which was reviewed and adopted at the 2nd session of the Coordination Committee (Baku, 10-15 February 1997).
The main objectives of the CASPAS program are as follows:
- Creation of a regional system for obtaining and exchanging information on the state of the air and water environment, pollution and other characteristics of the natural environment in the Caspian Sea region.
- Implementation of comprehensive studies of the problem of changing the level of the Caspian Sea, as well as pollution of the natural environment in the region, assessment and development of the forecast of its impact on the environment.
The implementation of the CASPAS Program creates a reliable basis for information support of all activities aimed at achieving sustainable socio-economic development of the region and meeting the requirements of environmentally balanced nature management.
Kazhydromet actively develops activities in such a direction of international cooperation as courses, trainings, training seminars, workshops.
Employees of Kazhydromet takes part in courses, trainings, training seminars held in Russia, Germany, India, Uzbekistan, Israel, Japan, China, the Republic of Korea, Turkey, Malaysia, Pakistan and Oman.