Monitoring the state of the environment

Monitoring the state of atmospheric air

Observations of the state of atmospheric air are carried out in 69 localities at 170 observation posts and with the help of mobile laboratories.

At 54 manual sampling stations 3-4 times a day (07, 13, 19, 01 hours), depending on the program, air samples are taken and then sent to the laboratory to determine the concentrations of pollutants.

At 116 automatic posts, observations are carried out in a continuous mode.

At the posts and with the help of mobile laboratories, the following indicators are determined: suspended particles (dust), suspended particles RM-2.5, suspended particles RM-10, sulfur dioxide, soluble sulfates, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone (ground), hydrogen sulfide, phenol, hydrogen fluoride, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, hydrocarbons, ammonia, sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, methane, the sum of hydrocarbons, n/o arsenic compounds, cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, benzene, ethylbenzene, Benz(a)pyrene, gasoline, beryllium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, Nickel, mercury.

Monitoring of precipitation and snow cover

Observations of the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation (at 46 weather stations - monthly) and the content of pollutants in the snow cover (at 39 weather stations-1 time a year during the maximum moisture content in the snow) are carried out to assess regional air pollution and identify the range of pollutants.

Precipitation and snow samples contain: anions (sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, bicarbonates), cations (ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium), trace elements (lead, copper, cadmium, arsenic), acidity, and specific electrical conductivity.

Radiation monitoring

Observations of radioactive contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere are made by determining the power of the exposure dose of gamma radiation at 89 weather stations and 23 automatic stations, as well as the total beta activity at 43 weather stations.

Monitoring of soil condition

Observations of soil conditions are made at 94 observation points. Samples are taken twice a year within localities and industrial areas, followed by determination of the content of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium, Nickel, manganese) and petroleum products.

Monitoring the quality of surface water

Surface water quality monitoring is carried out at 372 sites located on 134 water bodies (including 88 rivers, 29 lakes, 15 reservoirs, 3 channels, and the Caspian sea). When studying the pollution of land surface waters, 60 physical and chemical indicators of water quality are determined in the water samples taken, including temperature, water consumption, suspended substances, color, transparency, hydrogen index, dissolved oxygen, BOD-5, COD, major salt ions, biogenic elements, petroleum products, phenols, heavy metals, pesticides.

Monitoring of transboundary watercourses

RSE "Kazhydromet" monitors the quality of surface water on 32 transboundary rivers: with China, the Russian Federation, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Background monitoring

In Kazakhstan, one station of integrated background monitoring of the natural environment (SCFM) "Borovoe" has been established in the Akmola region in order to obtain information about the background state of biosphere pollution and trends in its change.