Monitoring the state of the environment

Monitoring of the atmospheric air condition
Atmospheric air monitoring is carried out in 69 localities at 170 observation posts and with the help of mobile laboratories.
At 40 manual sampling stations 3-4 times a day (07, 13, 19, 01 hours), depending on the program, air sampling is carried out with further referral to the laboratory to determine the concentrations of pollutants.
At 130 automatic posts, observations are carried out in a continuous mode.
The following indicators are determined at the posts and with the help of mobile laboratories: suspended particles (dust), suspended particles RM-2.5, suspended particles RM-10, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone (ground), hydrogen sulfide, phenol, hydrogen fluoride, chlorine, hydrochloride, hydrocarbons, ammonia, sulfuric acid, formaldehyde, methane, the sum of hydrocarbons, arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, benzene, benzene(a)pyrene, beryllium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, nickel, mercury, the equivalent dose rate of gamma radiation (gamma background).


Monitoring of precipitation and snow cover
Observations of the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation (at 46 weather stations - monthly) and the content of pollutants in the snow cover (at 39 weather stations -1 time per year during the maximum moisture content in the snow) are carried out in order to assess regional atmospheric pollution and identify the distribution area of pollutants.
In precipitation and snow samples, the following are determined: anions (sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, bicarbonates), cations (ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium), trace elements (lead, copper, cadmium, arsenic), acidity, specific electrical conductivity.

Radiation monitoring
Observations of radioactive contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere are carried out by determining the exposure dose rate of gamma radiation at 89 weather stations and 12 automatic posts, as well as the total beta activity at 43 weather stations.

Soil condition monitoring
Soil conditions are monitored at 101 observation points.  Samples are taken three times a year within settlements and industrial areas, followed by determination of the content of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, manganese, arsenic, mercury) and petroleum products.

Monitoring of the quality of surface waters         
Surface water quality monitoring is carried out at 370 sites located on 132 water bodies (including 87 rivers, 28 lakes, 13 reservoirs, 3 canals and the Caspian Sea). When studying pollution of land surface waters, 60 physico-chemical indicators of water quality are determined in the water samples taken, including temperature, water flow, suspended solids, chromaticity, transparency, hydrogen index, dissolved oxygen, BOD-5, COD, main ions of salt composition, biogenic elements, petroleum products, phenols, heavy metals, pesticides.

Monitoring of transboundary watercourses
Kazhydromet RSE monitors the quality of surface waters on 32 transboundary rivers: with China, the Russian Federation, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Background monitoring
In Kazakhstan, one Borovoye integrated background monitoring station (SCFM) has been organized in the Akmola region in order to obtain information on the background state of biosphere pollution and trends in its changes.